Glossary of Terms...
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Aeroponics. A cultivation technique in which plants are grown in an environment dependent on air rather than soil. In this system, seeds are embedded in foam stuffed into tiny pots that hold the stem and root mass in place. Plants are nurtured with light and a fine mist enriched with nutrients.
Alcohol extraction. A method commonly used to extract cannabinoids from cannabis plants. In this process, cannabis is first soaked in an alcohol, such as ethanol, to remove the plant material. The alcohol is removed through evaporation.
Anandamide. A major endocannabinoid naturally found in the body. Like 2-AG, anandamide is part of the body’s endocannabinoid system and alters functions like cognition, learning, memory, mood, other higher intellectual functions, and certain motor functions. THC is thought to produce psychoactive effects and alter these same functions in the body because it mimics the way anandamide interacts with the endocannabinoid system.
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Bioavailability. This term refers to the degree and rate at which a drug is absorbed by the body’s circulatory system. It’s an important measurement tool because it determines the correct dosage for non-intravenously administered drugs. For drugs, supplements, and herbs administered non-intravenously (such as through consumption, inhalation, or topical application) bioavailability designates the fraction of the ingested dose that eventually gets absorbed.
Broad spectrum. A cannabis product that contains more than just CBD, such as some minor cannabinoids and terpenes, but no THC.
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Cannabidiol. The second most prevalent cannabinoid in cannabis, after tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol has been shown to calm the movements in people suffering from dystonia, a condition characterized by muscle spasms. Research also suggests that it may be helpful for the treatment of anxiety, movement disorders, and pain.
Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor. CB1 receptors are found on the surface of certain cells, tissues, and organs, and help regulate biological function. CB1 receptors are present in several regions of the brain and spinal cord and, in lesser quantities, in other parts of the body, such as the endocrine glands and the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. CB1 receptors mediate the effects of cannabinoids on these organs.
Cannabinoid. Not to be confused with cannabidiol (cannabidiol is a cannabinoid, but not all cannabinoids are cannabidiol), a cannabinoid is one of the diverse chemical compounds that acts on the endocannabinoid system receptors found throughout the body. These molecules include the endocannabinoids produced naturally in the body and phytocannabinoid from cannabis.
Capsule. A delivery method for CBD oils and extracts that’s easy to swallow (literally). Capsule products resemble the gel pills you’re used to seeing at your local pharmacy.
Certificate of analysis (COA). A document from an accredited laboratory certifying the amount of cannabinoids in a given product. This proof of analysis exists to benefit the consumer as much as the producer: It guarantees quality assurance for both parties. Reviewing the COA is a pro consumer move that helps you avoid mislabeled, low-quality, or fake products. A reputable company will always provide one.
Concentrates (or extracts). Cannabis concentrates, or extracts, are significantly more potent than a standard cannabis bud or flower. They are processed to keep only the most desirable medicinal compounds while removing excess plant material. Concentrates are often developed for medical applications.
CO2 extraction. The carbon-dioxide extraction process uses changes in temperature and pressure to create phase changes in carbon dioxide, gently drawing out the plant’s beneficial components. The result is clean, safe oil with a long shelf life.
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Decarboxylation. The process of applying heat to activate and release the CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis.
Delivery method. How a drug enters the body in order to produce the desired therapeutic effects. The delivery method of a given drug can affect how quickly it starts working and how much of each dose gets absorbed by the body.
Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol. Known by the abbreviation THC, this is a primary cannabinoid found in cannabis and the one responsible for its psychoactive effects. Dosing The quantity of medicine prescribed at one time.
Dosing. CBD depends on therapeutic goals, as well as how it is ingested or applied.
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Edible. Any food containing some form of cannabis. Pot brownies are the most classic example, but nowadays, cannabis-infused edibles come in many other forms: candy, coffee, baked goods, martinis, even infused butter and cooking oil.
Endocannabinoid system. A complex system within the human body that affects many important functions, including how a person moves, feels, and reacts. It includes endocannabinoids, endocannabinoid receptors, and endocannabinoid enzymes.
Entourage effect. This phenomenon is all about teamwork: It’s the result of the many components in the cannabis plant interacting together with the human body to produce a stronger effect than any one component on its own. Full-spectrum CBD products combine CBD with other naturally occurring terpenes and cannabinoids (including THC) to be more effective than their isolate counterparts.
Ethanol extraction. Extraction using cold, high-grade alcohol gently pulls all the active compounds from the cannabis plant’s cellulose material, resulting in pure, full-spectrum hemp oil. Oils extracted using this method are further refined via chromatography to remove all remaining traces of ethanol.
Extraction. Extraction techniques are used to separate the chemical components of cannabis from the plant matrix.
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Farm Bill. United States Congress voted at the end of December 2018 to pass the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, more commonly referred to as the Farm Bill. This legislation made CBD products legal to purchase in all 50 states. Under the Farm Bill, industrial hemp (where CBD products are derived from) must contain less than .3 % THC. The power over industrial hemp regulation is shared by the state and federal governments. The Farm Bill also gave the FDA the authority to regulate cannabis products.
Full spectrum. CBD that’s full of all the terpenes, cannabinoids, flavonoids, and fatty acids found in hemp, all of which have therapeutic value of their own and help create what’s known as the entourage effect. Basically, full-spectrum CBD can give you every potential benefit the plant has to offer.
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Hemp. A distinct strain of the Cannabis sativa plant often grown for industrial use. Hemp used in CBD products must contain less than .3% THC.
Hemp seed oil. Derived from industrial hemp, hemp seed oil is created by pressing the plant’s seeds. It has no therapeutic benefits but is often used as a dietary supplement and a low-saturated-fat cooking oil.
Homeostasis. A term that describes the dynamic stability of your internal environment.
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Industrial hemp. Hemp grown specifically for the industrial uses of its products, including textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastic, food, biofuel, and medicine (including CBD). Hemp and its products are legal in the U.S. under the Farm Bill as long as they contain less than .3% THC.
Isolate CBD. These products are 99% CBD. To manufacture an isolate, everything contained in the plant matter is removed — including any traces of THC and other beneficial cannabinoids — until only a powder or crystalline form of CBD is left. This means that isolate users will not benefit from the entourage effect.
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Marijuana. A general term that refers to female Cannabis sativa plants that produce flowers containing phytocannabinoids that are used for their medicinal and psychoactive properties.
Micro-dosing. A technique that involves consuming small servings of CBD supplements throughout the day. Micro-dosing can be beneficial because it allows the user to maintain stable CBD levels in your system around the clock. This consistency can be important for those who use CBD for its balancing properties.
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NANO. Nanotechnology is a manufacturing technology that works with atoms to change the structure of matter. This is important when it comes to CBD because it is very hard for the body to absorb. So nano-sizing the CBD particles will allow for a substantially higher absorption rate.
Nutraceutical. Also known as dietary supplements, these are food-derived products that offer extra health benefits in addition to their existing nutritional value. These products that contains nutrients derived from food products and are often concentrated in liquid, capsule, powder, or pill form. Dietary supplements are regulated by the FDA.
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Organic. Foods and products derived from farming methods that promote ecological balance and restrict the use of pesticides, fertilizers, and synthetics. These growing practices promote the health of both the environment and the consumer. Organic products particularly appeal to those who support sustainable farming and care about the safety and quality of what goes into their bodies.
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Phytocannabinoid. Cannabinoids that occur naturally in a cannabis plant.
Potency. A measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity in the body. A highpotency drug evokes a larger response even at a low dose, while a low-potency drug evokes a small response at low concentrations and requires higher doses for a similar effect.
Private label. Products that are manufactured by one company for sale under another company’s brand. Private Label products are labeled by the manufacturer the are specifically designed for that particular company’s needs and wants.
Psychoactive. A property that changes brain function by interacting with the central nervous system and results in altered perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior. THC is the primary psychoactive component in cannabis plants.
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Salve. An ointment made from the cannabis plant to be applied directly to the skin.
Strain. A cannabis plant bred for certain characteristics and use in medicinal, recreational, or industrial purposes. Industrial hemp, for example, is a strain bred to contain more CBD and less THC than other varieties, making it useful for medicinal products and legal under the Farm Bill.
Sublingual. From the Latin for “under the tongue,” a method for administering drugs by mouth. It involves placing a substance under the tongue, where it can be readily absorbed into the blood vessels and begin to circulate throughout the body.
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Terpene. The aromatic and flavorful component of the essential oils contained in plants. More than 100 terpenes have been identified in the cannabis plant.
Terpsolate. A cannabis product that contains CBD and terpenes.
THC. The main active psychoactive constituent of cannabis. It is responsible for the high sensation.
Tincture. A delivery method, typically administered sublingually, that quickly absorbs and distributes throughout the body.
Topical. A delivery method where product is applied to the skin, typically as a salve or lotion, over the areas where they’re needed.
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Vertical integration. A business practice where a company owns its own supply chain. For example, owning the farms where hemp is grown, the barns where it’s stored, and the labs where it’s processed. This means that a vertically integrated company can ensure tighter quality control and maintain their core values and practices across all parts of the production process.
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Water Soluble. A cannabis product that mimics water solubility, often through the use of liposomes or nano-emulsion techniques.
White Label. A product or service produced by one company (the manufacturer) that other companies rebrand to make it appear as if they had made it. White Label products come without a label, later to be put on by the company reselling the product.